CDS 2019 English Question Paper -2


Directions : In this section, a word is spelled in four different ways. You are to identify the one which is correct. Choose the alternative bearing the correct spelling from (a), (b), (c) and (d).

  1. (a) Accommodate

(b) Acomodate

(c) Accomdate

(d) Acomodait

  1. (a) Recommand

(b) Reccommend

(c) Recommend

(d) Reccomand

  1. (a) Argyument

(b) Argument

(c) Arguement

(d) Argyooment

  1. (a) Decisive

(b) Desisive

(c) Descisive

(d) Desicive

5.(a)       Aggressive

(b)          Agresive

(c)           Agressive

(d)          Aggresive

  1. (a) Assassination

(b)          Asassination

(c)           Asasination

(d)          Assasination

  1. (a) Embarassment

(b)          Embbarasment

(c)           Embrasement

(d)          Embarrassment


Directions : Given below are some idioms/phrases followed by four alternative meanings to each. Choose the response (a), (b), (c) or (d) which is the most appropriate meaning.

  1. Dirt cheap

(a)          Extremely cheap

(b) Extremely costly

(c) Very cheap person

(d) Very cheap item

  1. A shrinking violet

(a)          A lean person

(b) A shy person

(c)           A happy person

(d) A sad person

  1. Gordian knot

(a)          Undoable job

(b) A difficult problem

(c)           A different problem

(d) Doable job

  1. Fall in a heap

(a)          To be at the mercy of someone else

(b)          To be thinking about someone

(c)           To lose control of one’s own feelings

(d)          To be in control of one’s own feelings

  1. Have a conniption fit

(a)          To be very angry

(b) To be very happy

(c)           To be very sad

(d) To be a jubilant person

  1. Be in seventh heaven

(a)          To be extremely happy

(b) To be extremely upset

(c)           To be extremely adventurous   

(d) To be extremely silent

  1. Hand in glove

(b) Working together

(a)          Working separately

(c)           Working for someone

(d) Not willing to work

  1. Nip in the bud

(a)          Prevent a small problem before it becomes severe

(b)          Prevent the big problems

(c)           Make it severe

(d)          Beating the problem

  1. Like a shag on a rock

(a)          Completely alone

(b)          Completely idle

(c)           Complete silence

(d)          Complete happy

  1. A pearl of wisdom

(a)          An important piece of news

(c)           An important thing for life

(b)          An important person

(d)          An important piece of advice


Directions t Each of the following passages in this section has some blank spaces with four words or groups of words given. Select whichever word or group of words you consider most appropriate for the blank space and indicate your response on the Answer Sheet accordingly.


  1. The founders of the Indian Republic the farsightedness and the courage to

(a) had

(b)          has

(c)           has had

(d)          were

  1. commit to two major innovations of historical significance in

(a) them             

(b)          themselves

(c)           the people

(d)          the course

  1. nation-building and social engineering : first, to a democratic and civil

(a) build              

(b)          building

(c)           constructing

(d)          built

  1. society among illiterate people and, second, to undertake economic

(a) libertarian

(b)          liberation

(c)           liberating

(d)          liberty

  1. development democratic political structure. Hitherto, in all

(a) with a            

(b)          within a

(c)           for the

(d)          without a

  1. societies in which an economic takeoff or an early industrial and agricultural had occurred, effective democracy, especially from the working

(a) breakthrough

(b)          breakout

(c)           breaking

(d)          investment

  1. people, had been extremely limited. On the other hand, ___ the beginning,

(a) with

(b)          from

(c)           within

(d)          for

  1. India was committed to democratic and civil libertarian political order

(a) few

(b)          some

(c)           a

(d)          an

  1. and a representative system of government on free and fair elections to be conducted on the basis of universal adult franchise.

(a) basing

(b)          basis of

(c)           based

(d)          function


  1. Ecology, in a very simple term, is a science that the interdependent,

(a) studies

(b)          study

(c)           studying

(d)          exploring

  1. mutually reactive and interconnected relationships the organisms and

(a) among

(b)          between

(c)           to

(d)          for

  1. physical environment on the one hand and among the organisms on the

(a) their

(b)          its

(c) theirs

(d) all

  1. other hand. the term ‘ecology’ was first coined and used by the

(a) Through

(b)          In spite of

(c)           Though

(d)          Because

  1. German biologist Ernst Haeckel in 1869, a few conceptual terms

(a) are

(b)          were

(c)           have been

(d)          have

  1. already proposed to reveal relationships organisms and their environment.

(a) among

(b)          those

(c)           of

(d)          between

  1. For example, French zoologist I. G. Hilaire used the term ‘ethology’ the

 (a) for 

 (b)         to

(c)           with

(d)          in

  1. study of the relations of organisms within the family and society in the

(a) the 

(b)          a

(c)           live

(d)          dead

  1. aggregate and in the community. British naturalist St. George Jackson Mivart proposed the term ‘hexicology’ with regard to the study of the relations living creatures

(a) for  

(b)          of

(c)           within

(d)          in

  1. to other organisms and their environment as regards the nature of the locality they frequent, the temperatures and the of light which suit them, and their relations to other organisms as enemies, rivals, or accidental and involuntary benefactors.

(a) amount

(b)          focus

(c)           share

(d)          quality


Directions : Each item in this section consists of a sentence with an underlined word followed by four words/groups of words. Select the option that is nearest in meaning to the Bold word and mark your response on your Answer Sheet accordingly.

  1. The properties of the family have been impounded by the order of the court.

(a) Confiscated

(b) Permitted

(c) Sold

(d) Put on hold

  1. The officer in charge of the operations has been impugned for the excesses.

(a) Expelled       

(b) Rewarded

(c) Challenged  

(d) Given allowance

  1. Cognitivist and linguists believe that every child is bom with innate qualities.

(a) Biological      

(b) Intrinsic

(c) Extrinsic        

(d) Unnatural

  1. It was obligatory for the board to implement the rule.

(a) Compulsory

(b) Unnecessary

(c) By chance    

(d) Problematic

  1. They describe the act as a blatant betrayal of faith.

(a) Loyal              

(b) Faithfulness

(c) Treachery    

(d) Honesty

  1. However, if it must decide, then it should do so on the narrowest ground possible.

(a) Widest          

(b) Slightly

(c) Smallest        

(d) Thick

  1. This is akin to a contractual relationship that places obligations on the entities entrusted

with data.

(a) Removed     

(b) Narrow

(c) Similar

(d) unparallel

  1. Many communication problems can be attributed directly to misunderstandings and


(a) Disapproved               

(b) Unofficial

(c) Ascribed       

(d) Tribute

  1. The exemptions granted to State institutions for acquiring informed consent from processing

personal data in many cases appear to be too blanket.

(a) Obtain           

(b) Lose

(c) Giving            

(d) Thinking

  1. The manner in which this exercise has been undertaken leaves much to be desired.
  2. fa) Disliked

(b) Unlikely

(c) Wish for        

(d) Asked for


Directions : In this section, each item consists of six sentences of a passage. The first and sixth sentences are given in the beginning as SI and S6. The middle four sentences in each item have been jumbled up and labelled as P, Q, R and S. You are required to find the proper sequence of the four sentences and mark your response accordingly on the Answer Sheet.

  1. SI : The master always says, “Refuse to be miserable”.

S6 : This is the art of right contact in life.

P : Before you fail into self-pity and blame games, remember that responsibility comes to only those who feel responsible.

Q : Challenges are faced by the strong and courageous, and if life brings you such opportunities, then turn failures into success.

R : Life can be painful, but it need not be sorrowful.

S : If you want to be happy, find occasions to be cheerful.

The correct sequence should be

(a) RSPQ             

(b) SQPR

(c) QRSP

(d) RQSP

  1. SI : Gandhiji reached Newcastle and took charge of the agitation.

S6 : The treatment that was meted out to these brave men and women in jail included starvation and whipping, and being forced to work in the mines by mounted military police.

P : During the course of the march, Gandhiji was arrested twice, released, arrested a third time and sent to jail.

Q : The employers retaliated by cutting off water and electricity to the workers’ quarters, thus forcing them to leave their homes.

R : Gandhiji decided to march this army of over two thousand men, women and children over the border and thus see them lodged in Transvaal jails.

S : The morale of the workers, however, was very high and they continued to march till they were prosecuted and sent to jail.

The correct sequence should be

(a) QRPS             

(b) SRQP

(c) QPSR              

(d) RQSP

  1. SI : One of the most important forces in the modem world, socialism was a direct result of

the Industrial Revolution.

S6 : This is how socialism as a theory and practice came into being.

P : Socialism was a direct challenge to capitalism and sought to put an end to such an exploitative economic structure.

Q : The gulf between the ‘haves’ and the ‘have not s’ continued to increase and out of this gap between the rich and poor sprang disputes.

R : It generated new wealth but as this new wealth only went to a minority, it could not solve the question of distribution.

S : The Industrial Revolution solved the question of production.

The correct sequence should be

(a) PQRS             

(b) SRQP

(c) SRPQ

(d) RQSP

  1. SI : Institutions define and play a regulatory role with regard to human behaviour.

S6 : It shows how important it is for a nation to build institutions for nurturing democracy.

P : Once established, institutions set a dynamic relationship with the members constituting them and they mutually affect each other.

Q : They shape preferences, power and privilege.

R : At the same time, institutions themselves can be transformed by the politics they produce and such transformation can affect social norms and behaviours.

S : They also provide a sense of order and predictability.

The correct sequence should be

(a) RPQS             

(b) QRSP

(c) PSRQ              

(d) QSRP

  1. SI : Idioms are a colourful and fascinating aspect of language.

S6 : Idioms may also suggest a particular attitude of the person using them, for example, disapproval, humour, exasperation or admiration, so you must use them carefully.

P : Your language skills will increase rapidly if you can understand idioms and use them confidently and correctly.

Q : They are commonly used in all types of language, informal and formal, spoken and written.

R : In addition, idioms often have a stronger meaning than non-idiomatic phrases.

S : One of the main problems students have with idioms is that it is often impossible to guess the meaning of an idiom from the words it contains.

The correct sequence should be

(a) RQPS             

(b) RSPQ

(c) SRQP

(d) QPSR

  1. SI : Each organism is adapted to its environment.

S6 : What can be taken in and broken down depends on the body design and functioning.

P : There is a range of strategies by which the food is taken in and used by the organism.

Q : For example, whether the food source is stationary (such as grass) or mobile (such as deer), would allow for differences in how the food is accessed and what is nutritive apparatus used by a cow or a lion.

R ; The form of nutrition differs depending on the type and availability of food material as well as how it is obtained by an organism.

S : Some organisms break down the food material outside the body and then absorb it and others take in the whole material and break it down inside their bodies.

The correct sequence should be

(a) RQPS             

(b) QPSR

(c) SQPR              

(d) QPRS

53.SI : “When I was alive and had a human heart,” answered the statue, “I did not know what tears were, for I lived in the Palace of Sans-Souci where sorrow is not allowed to enter.

S6 : And now that I am dead they have set me up here so high that I can see all the ugliness and all the misery of my city, and though my heart is made of lead yet I cannot choose but weep.”

P : So I lived, and so I died.

Q : Round the garden ran a very lofty wall, but I never cared to ask what lay beyond it, everything about me was so beautiful.

R : My courtiers called me the Happy Prince, and happy indeed I was, if pleasure be happiness.

S : In the daytime I played with my companions in the garden, and in the evening I led the dance in the Great Hall.

The correct sequence should be

(a) QSRP             

(b) PQRS

(c) PRQS

(d) RPQS

  1. SI : One day her mother, having made some cakes, said to her, “Go, my dear, and see how your grandmother is doing, for I hear she has been very ill. Take her a cake, and this little pot of butter.”

S6 : “Does she live far off?” said the wolf.

P : He asked her where she was going.

Q : The poor child, who did not know that it was dangerous to stay and talk to a wolf, said to him, “I am going to see my grandmother and cany her a cake and a little pot of butter from my mother,”

R : As she was going through the wood, she met with a wolf, who had a very great mind to eat her up, but he dared not, because of some woodcutters working nearby in the forest.

S : She set out immediately to go to her grandmother, who lived in another village.

The correct sequence should be

(a) PRQS             

(b) SRPQ

(c) PRSQ              

(d) RPQS

55.SI : I had spent many nights in the jungle looking for game, but this was the first time I had ever spent a night looking for a man-eater.

S6 : It was in this position my men an hour later found me fast asleep; of the tiger I had neither heard nor seen anything.

P : I bitterly regretted the impulse that had induced me to place myself at the man-eater’s mercy.

Q : The length of road immediately in front of me was brilliantly lit by the moon, but to right and left the overhanging trees cast dark shadows, and when the night wind agitated the branches and the shadows moved, I saw a dozen tigers advancing on me.

R : As the grey dawn was lighting up the snowy range which I was facing, I rested my head on my drawn-up knees.

S : I lacked the courage to return to the village and admit I was too frightened to carry out my self-imposed task, and with teeth chattering, as much from fear as from cold, I sat out the long night.

The correct sequence should be

(a) QPSR             

(b) SRPQ

(c) PRSQ

(d) RPQS


Directions : Given below are a few sentences. Identify the part of speech of the Bold words. Choose the response (a), (b), (c) or (d) which is the most appropriate expression.

  1. Rita eats her dinner quickly.

 (a) Verb

(b)          Preposition

 (c) Adjective

(d)          Adverb

  1. He thought the movie ended abruptly.

(a) Noun

(b) Adverb

(c) Verb

(d)          Adjective

  1. I will meet you in the third week of August.

(a) Pronoun

(b)          Verb

(c)           Preposition

(d)          Noun

  1. Jasmines and roses are my favourite flowers.

(a) Verb

(b)          Preposition

(c)           Conjunction

(d)          Interjection

  1. She truthfully answered the detective’s questions.

(a) Verb              

(b) Adjective

(cj Noun              

(d) Adverb

  1. Hurrah ! We won the game !

(a) Interjection

(b) Conjunction

(c)           Noun

(d) Pronoun

  1. The son writes meaningless letters to his father.

(a) Adverb         

(b) Verb

(c) Pronoun

(d)          Adjective

  1. The secretary himself visited the affected families.

(a) Verb              

(b) Noun

(c)           Adverb

(d) Pronoun

  1. The children were walking through the forest.

(a) Verb              

(b) Adverb

(c)           Adjective            

(d) Preposition

  1. The Presiding Officer walked slowly to the dais.

(a) Adverb         

(b) Adjective

(c)           Verb     

(d) Noun


Directions : Each item in this section consists of a sentence with an Bold word followed by four words/group of words. Select the option that is opposite in meaning to the underlined word and mark your response on your Answer Sheet accordingly.

  1. Beauty lies in the eyes of the beholder.

(a) Allure            

(b) Charm

(c)           Inelegance         

(d) Ideal

  1. Reading details about suicide cases can push vulnerable people taking the extreme step.

(a) Imperious    

(b) Impervious

(c)           Helpless              

(d) Defenseless

  1. Standing before a judge in a courtroom can be daunting for anyone.

(a) Uncomfortable         

(b) Encouraging

(c) Demoralizing

(d) Off – putting

  1. He has been facing a kind of intimidation by his friends for last two years.

(a) Wiles             

(b) Conviction

(c)           Persuasion         

(d) Support

  1. There are many factors that constrain the philosophy of job enrichment in practice.

(a)          Oblige  

(b) Pressure

(c)           Restrict

(d) Support

  1. People look for plausible remedies to the problems which they do not know.

(a)          Acceptable        

(b) Unthinkable

(c)           Solvable              

(d) Believable

  1. The departing speech of the Chairperson ended with a plaintive note.

(a)          Melancholic       

(b) Gleeful

(c)           Doleful

(d) Adventurous

  1. The members have taken a unanimous decision to discord some of the rulings of the Managing

Committee on problems relating to maintenance.

(a)          Accord 

(b) Dissension

(c)           Dispute               

(d) Friction

  1. The insolent nature of the speaker had provoked the members of the house and this led to


(a)          Respectful         

(b) Autocratic

(c)           Impudent           

(d) Thought provoking

  1. Incessant rains have resulted in failure of crops during this season.

(a)          Sporadic              

(b) Persistent

(c) Continual

(d) Ceaseless


Directions : Each of the following items in this section consists of a sentence, the parts of which have been jumbled. These parts have been labelled as P, Q, R and S. Given below each sentence are four sequences namely (a), (b), (c) and (d). You are required to rearrange the jumbled parts of the sentence and mark your response on the Answer Sheet accordingly.

  1. the company are often asked(P)/ the formal or informal interviews(Q)/ employees who are leaving(R)/for their opinions during(S)

(a)          RPSQ

(b)          RQPS

(c)           PSQR

(d)          PQSR

  1. a hailstorm activity in the evenings(P)/ there is a possibility of()/ while there could be(R)/ heavy rain towards the weekend(S)

(a)          SQPR

(b)          QSRP

(c)           QRPS

(d)          SPRQ

  1. has been below normal since last week(P)/ the minimum temperature(Q)/ in some part of the city(R)/when rain and hailstorm activity recorded(S)

(a)          RSPQ

(b)          SPRQ

(c)           QPSR

(d)          PSQR

  1. for guest teachers(P)/ in the department of Biotechnology(Q)/ was also held(R)/a Selection Committee meeting(S)

(a)          SPRQ

(b)          QRSP

(c)           PRQS

(d)          RSPQ

  1. for contractual assignment at Cultural Centres abroad(P)/ as Teacher of Indian Culture for two years(Q)/ applications are invited in a prescribed format(R)/from Indian Nationals for deployment(S)

(a)          QPRS

(b)          SRPQ

(c)           PQRS

(d) RSQP

  1. while they are small(P)/ and do the great things(Q)/ while they are easy(R)/ do the difficult things(S)

(a)          SRQP

(b)          PSQR

(c)           SRPQ

(d)          QPSR

  1. then you sure(P)/ if you can’t(Q)/ don’t deserve me at my best(R)/ handle me at my worst(S)

(a)          PRQS

(b)          QSPR

(c)           RQSP

(d)          PSRQ

  1. you will be more disappointed(P)/ than by the ones you did do(Q)/ by the things you didn’t do(R)/twenty years from now(S)

(a)          PRSQ

(b)          PRQS

(c)           PQSR

(d)          SPRQ

  1. man is one who can lay(P)/ a firm foundation with the bricks(Q)/ a successful(R)/others have thrown at him(S)

(a)          PQSR

(b)          RQSP

(c)           RPQS

(d)          QSPR

  1. what we may be(P)/ but we know not(Q)/ we know(R)/ what we are(S)

(a) RSQP             

(b) QPRS             

(c) QRPS              

(d) RQPS             

  1. for the ordinary(P)/ not willing to risk the unusual(Q)/ if you are(R)/ you will have to settle(S)

(a) PRQS             

(b) SPQR             

(c) RQSP              

(d) QSRP

  1. as mere stepping stones(P)/ his major achievements(Q)/for the next advance(R)/ he regarded(S)

(a) SPQR             

(b) SQPR             

(c) SPRQ              

(d) RPQS             

  1. have a great influence(P)/ and they often shape our personality(Q)/ on our adult lives(R)/events in our childhood(S)

(a) SPRQ             

(b) SQRP             

(c) SRQP              

(d) PQRS             


Directions : Each item in this section has a sentence which has multiple parts. Find out the error/ no error and indicate your response from the options (a)t (b), (c) and (d) on the Answer Sheet.

  1. Experience has shown that the change-over from a closed economy to a mercantile economy

has presented in human society innumerable problems.

(a)          Experience has shown that

(b)          the change-over from a closed economy

(c)           to a mercantile economy has presented

(d)          in human society innumerable problems

  1. A closed economy is identified as a human community which produces all it consumes and

consumed all it produces.

(a)          A closed economy is identified

(b)          as a human community

(c)           which produces all it consumes

(d)          and consumed all it produces

  1. Iron is the most useful against all metals.

(a)          Iron is

(b)          the most useful

(c)           against all metals

(d)          No error

  1. Mumbai is largest cotton centre in the country.

(a)          Mumbai is

(b)          largest cotton centre

(c)           in the country

(d)          No error

  1. While every care have been taken in preparing the results, the company reserves the right to

correct any inadvertent errors at a later stage.

(a)          While every care have been taken

(b)          in preparing the results,

(c)           the company reserves the right to correct

(d)          any inadvertent errors at a later stage

  1. My sister and me are planning a trip from Jaipur to Delhi.

(a)          My sister and me are

(b)          planning a trip

(c)           from Jaipur to Delhi

(d)          No error

  1. Despite the thrill of winning the lottery last week, my neighbour still seems happy.

(a)          Despite the thrill of winning

(b)          the lottery last week,

(c)           my neighbour

(d)          still seems happy

  1. Children are not allowed to use the swimming pool unless they are with an adult.

(a)          Children are not allowed

(b)          to use the swimming pool

(c)           unless they are with an adult

(d)          No error

  1. Her knowledge of Indian languages are far beyond the common.

(a)          Her knowledge

(b)          of Indian languages

(c) are far beyond the common

(d)          No error

  1. The care, as well as the love of a father, were missing in her life.

(a)          The care, as well as the love

(b)          of a father,

(c)           were missing in her life

(d)          No error

  1. You look as if you have ran all the way home.

(a)          You look as if

(b)          you have ran

(c)           all the way home

(d)          No error

  1. The real voyage of discovery consist not in seeking new landscapes, but in having new eyes.

(a)          The real voyage of discovery

(b)          consist not in seeking new landscapes,

(c)           but in having new eyes

(d)          No error

  1. No struggle can ever succeeded without women participating side by side with men.

(a)          No struggle can ever succeeded

(b)          without women participating

(c)           side by side with men

(d)          No error

  1. Education is the passport to the future, for tomorrow belong to those who prepare for it today.

(a)          Education is the passport to the future,

(b)          for tomorrow belong to those

(c)           who prepare for it today

(d)          No error

  1. There come a time when you have to choose between turning the page and closing the book.

(a)          There come a time

(b)          when you have to choose

(c)           between turning the page

(d)          and closing the book


Directions : In this section, you have few short passages. After each passage, you will find some items based on the passage. First, read a passage and answer the items based on it. You are required to select your answers based on the contents of the passage and opinion of the author only.


Mankind’s experience of various evolutionary changes from primitive times to the present day has been extensive and varied. However, man’s problems were never before as complicated as they seem to be today. Man’s economic activity centres primarily around production. Labour is said to be the primary factor of production; its role, therefore, has been given a lot of importance. It should be useful to have an overall view of the economic history of man—from the nomadic times to the modem factory system—and study its relevance to the various labour problems of today.

Initially, man passed through “the hunting and fishing stage’. During this period, his basic needs were adequately met by Nature. Wild animals, birds and fruits satisfied his hunger, and his thirst was quenched by the waters of springs and rivers. Caves gave him shelter and barks of trees were used as clothing. During this stage of man’s progress, labour problems did not exist because of the absence of any economic, political and social systems.

Then came ‘the pastoral stage’, which was marked by a certain amount of economic activity. The nomadic and migratory nature of man persisted, and, together with his goats and cattle, he moved on to fresh pastures and meadows. Some conflicts would sometimes take place among herd-owners, for, during this period, the institution of nominal private properly ownership was not known.

This stage paves the way for ‘the agricultural stage’, during which the class system began to develop. There was a small artisan class mostly self-employed; and there were also landed proprietors or Zamindars as well as slaves. Thus, arose the feudal system. During the fourth stage of these developments, the handicrafts stage’, a number of social and economic changes took place which marked the beginning of the labour problem in the world. The self-sufficient economy of the village underwent a drastic change. The community of traders and merchants emerged.

  1. Humanity’s evolution from primitive stage to the present has been

(a)          static and smooth

(b)          huge and diversified

(c)           always violent

(d)          always peaceful

  1. …“man’s problems were never before as complicated as they seem to be today” means

(a)          the present times are the best times of humanity

(b)          the present times are the crucial period for humanity

(c)           the present times pose much more challenges to humans than the previous times

(d)          the present times provide much more facilities than the previous times

  1. Why does the author say that labour problems did not exist during *the hunting and

fishing stage’?

(a)          There was no nation existing at that time

(b)          There were no economic, political and social systems

(c)           There was no capitalism and market

(d)          There was no labour law

  1. “The pastoral stage was marked by a certain amount of economic activity.” How?

(a)          Humans started migrating and held goat-herds

(b)          Humans started owning land

(c)           Conflicts started as humans owned goats

(d)          Humans started doing agriculture

  1. Which word in the passage means ‘surfaced’?

(a)          Quenched

(b) Emerged

(c)           Nomadic

(d) Adequately


Ever since independence, land reforms have been a major instrument of State policy to promote both equity and agricultural investment. Unfortunately, progress on land reforms has been slow, reflecting the resilience of structures of power that gave rise to the problem in the first place.

The main instrument for realizing more equitable distribution of land is the land ceiling laws. These laws were enacted by several States during the late 1950s and 1960s, and the early 1970s saw more stringent amendments in the laws to plug loopholes in the earlier laws. But the record of implementation has not been satisfactory. Around 3 million hectares of land has been declared surplus so far, which is hardly 2 percent of net sown area in India. About 30 percent of this land has not yet been distributed as it is caught up in the litigations. Besides, a number of Benami and clandestine transactions have resulted in illegal possession of significant amounts of land above 

ceiling limits. There are widespread reports of allotment of inferior, unproductive, barren and wasteland to landless household, many of whom have been forced to sell it off, in the absence of resources to make it productive. In many instances, lands allotted to the rural poor under the ceiling laws sure not in their possession. In some cases, Pattas were issued to the beneficiaries, but possession of land shown in the Pattas was not given, or corresponding changes were not made in the records of right.

The balance of power in rural India is so heavily weighed against the landless and the poor that implementing land ceiling laws is difficult. It is clear that without massive mobilization of the rural poor and depending on democratic governance in rural India, very little can be achieved in this direction.

Although half of India’s population continues to depend on agriculture as its primary source of livelihood, 83 percent of farmers operate holdings of less than 2 hectares in size, and the average holding size is only 1-23 hectares. This is often in fragments and unirrigated. There are also those who are entirely landless, although agriculture is their main source of livelihood. They have inadequate financial resources to purchase and often depend on leasing in small plots, on insecure terms, for short periods, sometimes only for one season. Hence, many face insecurity of tenure and the growing threat of land alienation and pressure from urbanization, industrialization and powerful interest.

  1. Why does the land reform prove to be slow?

(a)          Because of the disparity in power structure

(b)          Because of the power of the government

(c)           Because States have different laws

(d)          Because of the scarcity of land in the country

  1. Which of the following statements is /are correct?
  2. Land ceiling laws have proved to be unsatisfactory.
  3. The democratic structure of the government cannot provide solution to the problem of land reforms.
  4. The owners of land have abundant natural resources.
  5. Identified land for distribution has not been distributed due to court cases against it. Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a)          1 and 4 

(b) 1 only

(c) 3 and 4

(d) 2 and 4

  1. One of the reasons of selling off the lands by the allottees is that the lands were

(a)          unproductive and barren            

(b) salty, not getting water

(c)           fertile, but uncultivable

(d) with the powerful people

  1. Which word/group of words in the passage means lawsuit’?

(a)          Amendments   

(b) Litigations

(c)           Illegal possession            

(d) Fragments

  1. According to the author, what is the primary source of livelihood of majority of India’s


(a)          Industry              

(b) Forest

(c)           Agriculture         

(d) None

  1. “There are also those who are entirely landless, although agriculture is their main source of

livelihood” means

(a)          they do not have money to buy lands

(b)          they have sold off their lands to others

(c)           most of them are agriculture labourers

(d)          they are migrant labourers from other places


Despite downsizings, workers’ overall job satisfaction actually improved between 1988 and 1994. Some reasons given were improved work flow, better cooperation between departments, and increased fairness in supervision. Many firms today rely on attitude surveys to monitor how employees feel about working in their firms.

The use of employee attitude surveys had grown since 1944 when the National Industrial Conference Board “had difficulty finding fifty companies that had conducted opinion surveys”. Today, most companies are aware of the need for employees’ anonymity, the impact of both the design of the questions and their sequence, the importance of effective communication, including knowing; the purpose of the survey before it is taken and getting feedback to the employees after it is completed. Computerization of surveys can provide anonymity, if there is no audit trail to the user, especially for short answers that are entered rather than written or typed on an identifiable machine.

Survey software packages are available that generate questions for a number of standard topics and can be customized by modifying existing questions or by adding questions. If the survey is computerized, reports can be generated with ease to provide snapshots of a given period of time, trend analysis, and breakdowns according to various demographics. You may be interested in responses by age, sex, job categories, departments, division, functions or geography.

The survey can be conducted by placing microcomputers in several locations convenient for employees’ use. Employees are advised where the computers will be, for how long, and when the data will be collected (for instance, daily at 5:00 p.m. for three weeks). The screens should not be viewable to supervisors or passers-by. While there may be some risk that employees will take the survey more than once, there are comparable risks with other methods too.

Managers may be interested in knowing how they are perceived by their peers and subordinates. Packages are available that can be customized, which allow the manager to complete a self-assessment tool used to compare self-perceptions to the anonymous opinions of others. This comparison may assist in the development of a more effective manager,

  1. Which one of the following is not the reason for improved job satisfaction of employees?

(a)          Improved work flow

(b)          Better cooperation between departments

(c)           Supervisors’ fairness

(d)          Increased remuneration

  1. Companies feel that it is necessary to

(a)          maintain anonymity of the employees and to have effective design and sequence of questions and effective communication

(b)          maintain the fairness of the managers to be part of the survey

(c)           conduct surveys from their employees

(d)          maintain anonymity of the employees and not to have effective design and sequence of questions and effective communication

  1. One major benefit of using survey software packages is

(a)          reports can be generated easily

(b)          privacy of a person is exposed to the supervisors

(c)           employees would like to take up the test on computer

(d)          employer can get to know the information immediately

  1. Which word in the passage means *tendency’?

(a) Trend            

(b) Breakdowns

(c)           Convenient       

(d) Perceptions

  1. “The screens should not be viewable to supervisors or passers-by.” Why?

(a)          To maintain the secrecy of a person

(b)          The main problem is to enable everyone to participate

(c)           The manager has to be fair enough

(d)          To maintain the problems faced by women in job market

  1. What does the word ‘customized’ mean here?

(a) Adapted       

(b) Take as it is

(c)           Fixed    

(d) Mass produced