# Logical Reasoning: Fact, Inference and Judgement

Last Updated on Nov 10, 2020

Fact, Inference and Judgement are the simplest yet confusing topic of the reasoning section. It deals with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification. We will discuss this topic details.

#### Facts

They deal with pieces of information that one has heard, seen or read, and which are open to discovery or verification. Facts are those statements which involve dates, natural phenomena, events etc. Facts are the statements which are:

• Verifiable
• Universal Truths
• Figures, statistics or other data without an opinion.

#### Inference

These are conclusions drawn about the unknown on the basis of the known. Inferences check your ability to read between the lines.

The known data in the sentence used to conclude an inference is called facts. Thus, all the inferences are based on facts and logic of deduction.

#### Judgement

A judgement closely resembles an inference and this is where a candidate usually makes an error mistaking one for the other. The main difference between both is that in an inference, the conclusion is usually easily and logically derivable from the fact. This is not the case in a judgement which is more of an opinion on the fact.

Judgement can be identified from statements that:

• Imply approval or disapproval
• Impose compulsion
• Predict using will or shall

Question

1. According to all statistical indications, the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals.
2. The Mid-day Meal Scheme has been a significant incentive for the poor to send their little ones to school thus establishing the vital link between healthy bodies and healthy minds.
3. Only about 13 million children in the age group of 6 to 14 years out of school.
4. The goal of universalization of elementary education has to be a pre-requisite for the evolution and development of our country.

(1) IIFJ (2) JIIJ (3) IJFJ (4) IJFI (5) JIFI

Solution

Let’s go through each statement

1. The first statement is as blatant an inference as there can be. The first part of the sentence i.e. ’According to all statistical indications’ is the fact on which the second part of the sentence is inferred. This statement says that on the basis of a fact, the conclusion can be drawn that the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan has managed to keep pace with its ambitious goals. Thus, this can easily be marked as an inference.
2. The second statement is a judgement as the statement clearly indicates an approval of the Mid-day meal scheme. Also, this doesn’t seem to be based on any fact in the statement. Hence, this can be marked as a judgement
3. The third statement is again obviously a fact as this is a statistic which can easily be verified.
4. The fourth statement is a judgement as the words ‘has to be a pre-requisite’ indicate an opinion about something.

### Summary

In this blog post, we have explained how Facts, Inference and Judgement is a tricky topic under Reasoning. All these topics are explained in detail with examples for easy understanding.