Basic Concepts of Ratio & Proportion

Ratio and Proportion

Basic Concepts of  Ratio & Proportion

Last Updated on Nov 11, 2019

A ratio is a comparison or simplified form of two quantities of the same kind. This relation indicates how many times one quantity is equal to the other; or in other words, a ratio is a number, which expresses one quantity as a fraction of the other. For Example: Ratio of 2 to 3 is 2:3

Let us take another example.

Suppose Kamal's weight is 50 kg and the weight of Hassan is 100 kg. A ratio of Kamal’s weight to Hassan’s weight can be found out by dividing Kamal’s weight to Hassan’s weight and vice versa. The ratio between Kamal’s and Hassan’s weight is 50/100= 1:2.

The numbers forming the ratio are called terms. The numerator, “2”, in this case, is known as the antecedent and the denominator, “3”, in this case, is known as the consequent.

A ratio can be written in three different ways and all are read as "the ratio of x to y"

  • x to y
  • x:y
  • xy

Direct Variation: Two quantities “x” and “y” are said to be in direct variation if an increase in one quantity results in an increase in the other quantity and decrease in one results in decrease in the other quantity. If two quantities vary always in the same ratio, then they are in direct variation.

Inverse Variation: If two quantities “x” and “y” are such that an increase or decrease in “x” leads to a corresponding decrease or increase in “y” in the same ratio, then we can say they vary indirectly or the variation is inverse.

This video lays out the basics of Ratio and Proportion. Understanding this topic well is necessary to solve questions that are asked in various competitive exams in the Logical Reasoning and Quantitative Aptitude section - applicable to CAT, XAT, MAT, SNAP, IIFT, CLAT, AILET, DU LLB, any other entrance exam as well.
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